What am I looking for?

Based on Steves posts it looks like it is actually possible to detect if a person is in a ketose state or not by analyzing that persons breath. But what are the signs of ketosis?

After doing some researching on Wikipedia I concluded that what we are looking for is acetone.

Acetone (CH3)2CO

Molecular formula C3H6O
Molar mass 58.08 g mol−1
Appearance Colorless liquid
Odor Pungent, irritating, floral
Density 0.791 g cm−3
Melting point -95–93 °C, 178-180 K, -139–136 °F
Boiling point 56-57 °C, 329-330 K, 133-134 °F
log P -0.042
Vapor pressure 24.46–24.60 kPa (at 20 °C)
Acidity (pKa) 24.2
Basicity (pKb) -10.2
Refractive index (nD) 1.35900
Viscosity 0.3075 cP

From the Wiki page about Ketone Bodies

Ketone bodies are three water-soluble compounds that are produced as by-products when fatty acids are broken down for energy in the liver. Two of the three are used as a source of energy in the heart and brain while the third (acetone) is a waste product excreted from the body. In the brain, they are a vital source of energy during fasting.[1] Although termed ”bodies”, they are dissolved substances, not particles.

The three endogenous ketone bodies are acetoneacetoacetic acid, and beta-hydroxybutyric acid,[2] although beta-hydroxybutyric acid is not technically a ketone but a carboxylic acid. Other ketone bodies such as beta-ketopentanoate and beta-hydroxypentanoate may be created as a result of the metabolism of synthetic triglycerides such as triheptanoin.d

Individuals who follow a low-carbohydrate diet will also develop ketosis, sometimes called nutritional ketosis, but the level of ketone body concentrations are on the order of 0.5-5 mM whereas the pathological ketoacidosis is 15-25 mM.

From the Wiki page about Ketosis

The ketone body acetoacetate will slowly decarboxylate into acetone, a volatile compound that is both metabolized as an energy source and lost in the breath and urine.


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